- Acid erosion
What is tooth wear?
Tooth wear is the non-carious loss of tooth structure,1 which typically falls into three main categories: abrasion, attrition and erosion. While tooth abrasion and attrition are caused by mechanical reasons (bruxism, brushing, clenching and general age-related wear from mastication), tooth erosion is a non-bacterial chemical process which begins when the tooth structure comes into contact with the acids in foods and beverages.1-4 When tooth enamel (the tooth's hard surface) is exposed to acids (from food, drinks or the stomach, e.g., due to sickness or regurgitation), it temporarily softens and loses some of its mineral content. Saliva will help neutralize acidity, restore the mouth's natural balance and slowly re-harden the tooth enamel. However, because the tooth's recovery process is slow, if the acid attack happens frequently, the tooth does not have a chance to repair itself. When the enamel is soft and we brush our teeth, the enamel can be worn away more easily, becoming thinner over time.
Why is tooth wear a growing concern?
With advances in dentistry and healthcare, teeth are lasting longer now than ever before. And today's modern lifestyle means that more patients are consuming the acidic fruits, juices and sodas related to one type of tooth wear, tooth erosion. In order to help teeth remain healthy for the long-term, early detection of tooth erosion is important.5 98% of U.S. dentists observe acid erosion happening among some of their patients.
What types of patients are at risk for tooth erosion?
Patients who consume diets that are high in acid from sources like fruit, sodas (including diet sodas), orange juice and wine may be at risk for tooth wear. These foods and drinks demineralize and soften the tooth surface, making it more susceptible to physical damage.5 Acidic foods should not and cannot easily be avoided, since they are important to a healthy diet. But care needs to be taken as to when and how often they are consumed. It is not just what is consumed that causes erosion, but also the way that acidic items are eaten and drunk. Holding or retaining acidic food or drinks in the mouth prolongs the teeth's exposure to acid, therefore increasing the risk of erosion. Swishing an acidic drink, for example, can increase the acidic drink's contact with the tooth or teeth, again increasing the risk of erosion. Other patients that commonly exhibit tooth erosion include those suffering from acid reflux, or bulimia.1,3
Can children have acid erosion?
"Baby teeth" are at risk from the effects of acid erosion because they are less mineralized and therefore the enamel is softer than it is on adult teeth. Attention should be paid to the acidic content of a child's diet and how they consume acidic food and drink.
Can brushing cause tooth wear?
Yes, as the enamel layer of a tooth demineralizes and becomes softened it becomes more susceptible to abrasion. Ultimately the tooth can become visibly less white and older-looking5 over time.
Are there visible signs of tooth erosion for which I can screen?
Yes. Over time, teeth with tooth erosion may become visibly less white and older-looking. This can happen when the enamel layer of a tooth demineralizes, becomes softened and may be more susceptible to abrasion.5
What are the signs and symptoms of tooth wear?
Teeth may look older and not appear as white, patients may also experience dentin hypersensitivity as the enamel begins to wear away.5,6
Tooth erosion in particular can wear down the enamel and change the texture, shape and appearance of teeth, which may also cause tooth sensitivity. Teeth may appear slightly "glassy" or transparent near their biting edges. This tends to be an earlier warning sign of the effects of acid erosion. They can have a yellow appearance as enamel becomes thinner and the darker dentin shows through. Discoloration tends to occur in the later stages of erosion. As erosion advances, teeth can develop a rounded, "sandblasted" look on their surface and edges. In the later stages of erosion, small cracks and roughness may be visible at the edges of the teeth. Small dents may appear on the chewing surfaces of the teeth in advanced stages of erosion. Fillings also may appear to rise up.
What are the long-term consequences of tooth erosion?
In the long term, the effects of tooth erosion may require dental treatment in order to protect the tooth and the underlying dentin. A dentist may decide to place a bonded filling, a veneer or a crown to restore the tooth to its former color and shape. In extreme cases, the damage caused by erosion may result in extraction of the tooth.
How quickly can the effects of tooth erosion occur?
There are many factors that contribute to the progression of erosion, most notably the frequency and concentration of the acids in contact with the teeth and the volume and defense of an individual's saliva. Personal lifestyles, consumption habits and teeth are different and all can affect the rate at which erosion affects teeth. There have been instances where enamel has been stripped from teeth in a period of six months, but this is extreme and rare.
Should I screen patients for tooth wear?
Definitely. You may wish to ask the patient whether they swish carbonated drinks around their mouth or retain food or drinks in their mouth for extended periods. You may also wish to inquire after tooth-brushing habits, symptoms of dentin hypersensitivity, and possible gastric conditions involving heartburn.5
What is the link between acid erosion and sensitivity? Should I screen patients with tooth wear for dentin hypersensitivity?
As tooth enamel is worn away, the underlying dentin may be exposed. This is a softer part of the tooth and as it becomes exposed, teeth may be more sensitive. As nerve endings in the teeth are activated, a slight twinge can be felt when consuming hot, cold or sweet foods and drinks.
It is therefore recommended that all dental professionals ask all patients about dentin hypersensitivity at each appointment, and open the discussion about possible triggers. Dentin hypersensitivity affects as many as one in five Americans,7 yet data indicates that up to 42% of patients with dentin sensitivity don't tell a dental professional about their symptoms.8
Can acid erosion be reversed?
Once the damage has been done, it cannot be reversed. In the advanced stages of erosion, there is likely to be a need for expensive and complicated dentistry to restore teeth to normal function. This is why understanding the problem and taking steps to minimize risk is so important.
What may I recommend to patients with tooth erosion?
For patients with tooth wear, you may wish to make the following recommendations:
- Reduce or eliminate intake of acidic food and drinks and in particular carbonated drinks6
- Cease retaining acidic foods and drinks inside the mouth6
- Chew sugar-free gum, suck a sugar-free lozenge or eat a piece of cheese after an acidic meal, to encourage saliva and protect enamel6
- Leave brushing of teeth for as long as possible after consuming acidic food or drink6
- Brush with a soft toothbrush, using a low-abrasion, low-acidity, high-fluoride, anti-hypersensitivity dentifrice6 like Sensodyne ProNamel® to help re-harden acid softened tooth enamel
Are there products I can recommend to my patients with tooth wear?
has been specifically formulated to help protect teeth from the effects of acid erosion. It works in a number of ways:
- It helps to re-harden acid softened enamel, making it more resistant to further acid attack.
- It has low abrasivity to limit further enamel wear during the process of toothbrushing
- It is pH neutral (non-acidic) to be kind to tooth enamel.
- It is specially formulated for people with sensitive teeth, which can be a sign and a symptom of acid erosion
Patients with tooth wear may also benefit from a desensitizing toothpaste with a low Relative Dentin Abrasivity (RDA), and fluoride. This can help relieve symptoms of dentin hypersensitivity, slow further enamel loss from excessive tooth abrasion, and help to harden tooth enamel.6 Toothpastes with 5% potassium nitrate as the desensitizing agent, when used twice-daily, have been proven to relieve dentin hypersensitivity in as little as two weeks. This is the maximum amount of potassium nitrate allowed by the FDA to treat sensitivity.9-14
- Abrahamsen, TC. The worn dentition- pathognomonic patterns of abrasion and erosion. Int J Dent (2005) 55. 268-276.
- Tooth Abrasion Definition. National Institutes of Health MeSH database. From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p2. Found at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=mesh&list_uids=68014072&dopt=Full. Accessed 9/19/06
- Tooth Attrition definition. National Institutes of Health MeSH database. From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86. Found at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=mesh&list_uids=68019217&dopt=Full Accessed 9/19/06
- Tooth Erosion definition. National Institutes of Health MeSH database. From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296. Found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=mesh&list_uids=68014077&dopt=Full. Accessed 9/19/06
- Lussi A. "Erosive Tooth Wear- A Multifactorial Condition of Growing Concern and Increasing Knowledge." Monogr Oral Sci. Basel, Karger, 2006, vol 20, pp 1-8.
- Bartlett, DW. "The role of erosion in tooth wear: aetiology, prevention and management." Int Dent J. (2005) 55, 277-264.
- Haywood VB. Dentin hypersensitivity: bleaching and restorative considerations for successful management. Int Dent J. 2002; 52:376-385.
- Guritzky, E. Dentin hypersensitivity. RDH. 2005. August.
- Tarbet WJ, et al.: Clinical evaluation of a new treatment for dentinal hypersensitivity. J Periodontol 51:535-540.
- Tarbet, WJ, et al: Home treatment for dentinal hypersensitivity: a comparative study. JADA, 105: 227-230. 1982.
- Collins, JF, et al: Reducing dentinal hypersensitivity with strontium chloride and potassium nitrate. General Dentistry. 1984. 40-43.
- Silverman, G. The sensitivity-reducing effect of brushing with a potassium nitrate-sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice. Compendium of Continuing Education. Vol VI, no. 2. 1985.131-134.
- Nagata T, Ishida H, Shinohara H, Nishikawa S., Kasahara S, Wakano Y, Daigen S, Troullos ES. Clinical evaluation of a potassium nitrate dentifrice for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. J Clin Periodontol 1994; 21: 217
- Silverman, G, Gringold J, Clark GE, The effectiveness of KN03 and NaMFP dentifrices in reducing detinal hypersensitivity.
SENSODYNE PRONAMEL is a registered trademark of Glaxo group of companies.
- Antiseptic oral cleanser
What does it do?
Used routinely, Gly-Oxide®
- Kills odor-forming germs
- Foams and flushes out food particles ordinary brushing can miss
- Helps maintain oral hygiene when regular brushing is inadequate or impossible
- Clean stains from orthodontics/dentures/bridgework, etc. better than brushing alone.
Used for treatment, Gly-Oxide®
- Gently removes unhealthy tissue, then cleanses and soothes canker sores and minor wounds and inflammations (such as from dental procedures, orthodontics, dentures, etc.) so natural healing can better occur
How does it work?
- Releases hydrogen peroxide for sustained antiseptic and oxygen-cleansing action.
- Releases oxygen for gentle, but effective tissue debridement.
- The anhydrous glycerol protects the peroxide molecule delaying its breakdown and holds the carbamide peroxide and peroxide foam in close contact with teeth and tissue throughout the mouth.
How do I instruct my patients to use Gly-Oxide®?
- Apply to toothbrush (it will sink into bristles), cover with toothpaste, brush normally.
- OR, swish in mouth for several minutes.
- OR, apply directly to affected area.
How does Gly-Oxide® Liquid differ from plain hydrogen peroxide?
- The combination of hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide with glycerin creates a relatively stable form of hydrogen peroxide that prolongs the antiseptic and cleansing oxygen action of the hydrogen peroxide.
- Carbamide peroxide also promotes gentle but effective tissue removal.
What is the pH of Gly-Oxide®?
The pH of Gly-Oxide® is 4.0 - 7.0
What package sizes of Gly-Oxide® are available?
Presently Gly-Oxide® is available in the 1/2-fluid-ounce and 2-fluid-ounce bottle sizes.
Who should use Gly-Oxide®?
Gly-Oxide® is especially effective in patients with braces/other orthodontic appliances/dentures/etc., elderly patients with denture irritations or unable to perform proper daily oral care, and patients undergoing procedures that may irritate or inflame the mouth or gums.
What is the flavor of Gly-Oxide®?
Gly-Oxide® has an artificial cinnamon-mint flavor.
GLY-OXIDE is a registered trademark of Aventisub II Inc.
- Dentin hypersensitivity
Which type of fluoride is in Sensodyne®, and what is its concentration?
Sensodyne® toothpastes contain sodium fluoride. The concentration is approximately 1100 ppm fluoride ion.
Why does Sensodyne® offer nine different formulas?
comes in nine different variants to satisfy individual needs:
- Cool Gel
- Extra Whitening
- Fresh Impact
- Fresh Mint
- Full Protection plus Whitening
- Tartar Control plus Whitening
- Original Flavor
- Sensodyne® Iso-Active™ Multi-Action
- Sensodyne® Iso-Active™ Whitening
With so many different flavors and formulations of Sensodyne®, I'm confused about which one to recommend.
Many dental professionals start by recommending a flavor most closely representing the dentifrice previously used by the patient. Among the recommendations for using Sensodyne®
to control dentin hypersensitivity, clinicians may choose to recommend a tartar control or whitening formulation to provide additional benefits. Patients can ultimately select the flavour they most prefer.
Sensodyne® is available in 9 formulas: Fresh Impact, Tartar Control plus Whitening, Fresh Mint, Original Flavor, Extra Whitening, Cool Gel, Full Protection, Iso-Active™ Multi-Action and Iso-Active™ Whitening.
How can you have a dentifrice that claims to control tartar and relieve dentin hypersensitivity in the same product?
Tartar control agents such as tetrapotassium pyrophosphate or sodium tripolyphosphate act by inhibiting crystallization, which can predispose a patient to dentin hypersensitivity. Previous formulations of desensitizing dentifrices contained strontium chloride, which acted as a tubule blocker. Both of these ingredients could be in conflict with one another. However, current formulations of desensitizing dentifrices contain potassium nitrate, which acts by nerve depolarization and thus, would not be compromised by a tartar control agent inhibiting crystallization.
How can I order Sensodyne®?
For information on how to order samples call 1-800-652-5625. Or click here
Is Sensodyne® safe to use every day?
Yes, Sensodyne® contains ingredients approved by the FDA. Sensodyne® is formulated for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity and cavity prevention
Is swallowing Sensodyne® harmful?
The FDA requires the following statement on the packaging of all toothpaste products: "If you accidentally swallow more than used for brushing, seek professional assistance or contact a Poison Control Center immediately. Naturally, you should keep this and all drugs out of the reach of children."
Why does the package state that Sensodyne® should not be used longer than 4 weeks unless recommended by a dentist or physician?
The FDA requires this statement on the packaging of all over-the-counter desensitizing toothpastes. Sensitive teeth may indicate a serious problem that may need prompt care by a dentist or physician. The warning was added to have consumers confirm with their dentists that they indeed have sensitive teeth versus another dental issue.
What is Iso-Active™
Sensodyne® Iso-Active™ Foaming Gel is a breakthrough technology in toothpaste. Its revolutionary delivery system disperses the toothpaste quickly, penetrating those hard-to-reach areas of the mouth. Sensodyne® Iso-Active™ is perfect for those who experience tooth sensitivity as it provides all around protection and sensitivity relief.
How do you use Iso-Active
is delivered in a novel canister format, and its gel-to-foam action is a result of the inclusion of isopentane. Isopentane responds to increases in temperature caused by the warmth of the mouth.
The active gel is stored in a special internal bag inside the can, known as "bag on valve" technology. When the can's nozzle is pressed, the pressure forces the gel out of the can. In the warmth of the mouth during brushing, the gel transforms into an active micro-fine foam, generating twice the foam volume as ordinary toothpaste and penetrating hard-to-reach places.
How does Iso-Active™ compare to ordinary toothpaste?
Generating twice the foam volume as ordinary toothpaste, the activated formulation of Iso-Active™
disperses active ingredients around the mouth and penetrates hard-to-reach areas and rinses clean away.
Sensodyne® Iso-Active™ is perfect for those who experience tooth sensitivity as it provides all around protection and sensitivity relief.
How does Iso-Active™ work?
Isopentane responds to increases in temperature caused by the warmth of the mouth. This relatively small increase in temperature produces a release of energy by the isopentane ingredient that stimulates the enhanced foaming action of the product.
Generating twice the foam volume as ordinary toothpaste, the activated formulation disperses active ingredients around the mouth to penetrate hard to reach areas and rinses clean away.
Its revolutionary delivery system provides overall oral health care.
Can I brush for a shorter amount of time when using Iso-Active™ ?
Although the activated formulation disperses active ingredients around the mouth quickly to penetrate hard-to-reach areas, it is still recommended to brush twice a day for two minutes as normal to ensure a thorough whole mouth clean.
What is the use-up rate on Iso-Active™ as it seems like it won't last as long as a tube?
The 4.3 ounce canister will provide you with the equivalent amount of toothpaste as a 4.3 ounce tube.
What varieties does Sensodyne® Iso-Active™ come in?
is available in two varieties:
- Sensodyne® Iso-Active™ Multi Action: Cleans the whole mouth and provides sensitivity relief
- Sensodyne® Iso-Active™ Whitening: Helps to restore teeth to their natural whiteness and provides sensitivity relief
What flavor does Iso-Active™ come in?
Sensodyne® Iso-Active™ comes in a mint flavor.
Does Iso-Active™ contain CFC's?
No. GSK believes that climate change is globally significant and as such has ensured that Sensodyne® Iso-Active™ Foaming Gel complies with all aerosol regulations and contains no CFC's. The product itself is pressurized within the canister using compressed nitrogen - an environmentally friendly propellant.
Can the product be recycled?
Yes. Aluminium aerosols can be collected with regular drink and food cans for recycling in specialist facilities. They should not be crushed or pierced, and only empty aerosols should be recycled.
What is isopentane?
Isopentane is a hydrocarbon that is used in a range of health and beauty products. Isopentane is the ingredient in Sensodyne® Iso-Active™ and Aquafresh® Iso-Active™ that transforms the gel to foam.
Is Isopentane safe to use as an ingredient in toothpaste?
Yes. Isopentane is already used safely in a range of cosmetic products that are applied directly to the skin. The scientific evidence and the experience of use of isopentane in a range of personal care products across the globe all support the conclusions that this ingredient is safe and effective when used as indicated.
SENSODYNE is a registered trademark of Glaxo group of companies.
- Denture care - Adhesives
General Questions and Answers
Questions and answers about Super Poligrip® and adhesives in general - here we cover the basics of what you need to know about using adhesives to live more comfortably and confidently with dentures or partials.
How do I remove the denture adhesive from my mouth and dentures?
To remove denture adhesive from your mouth:
- Swish mouth with water.
- Slowly remove denture using a rocking motion.
- Remove denture adhesive from your gums with warm water and a soft brush.
To remove denture adhesive from your dentures:
- Soak your dentures in warm water and Polident to remove adhesive.
- After soaking, brush your dentures with a soft-bristled brush dipped in Polident solution. (To avoid scratching dentures, do not use toothpaste.)
- Soaking and brushing your dentures daily can help to prevent adhesive build-up.
Why should I use a denture adhesive cream?
Super Poligrip® provides strong, all day hold, plus a denture adhesive cream can help you keep food particles from lodging between the denture and your gums/roof of the mouth, thus helping you reduce the incidence of gum irritation. Denture adhesives can increase the force that can be applied during biting and improve the ability of chewing hard to eat foods that you may have been avoiding. Denture adhesive creams can also help you regain your confidence by providing a more secure denture fit and reducing the likelihood of dislodgement.
Which Super Poligrip® is right for me - cream, strips or powders?
Even well fitting dentures can feel more comfortable with Super Poligrip®
. Just a few dabs create a seal between your dentures and gums making them more comfortable while you eat. There's a variety of denture adhesive variants to fit your individual needs including creams, strips and powders. Visit here
to learn more.
Super Poligrip® denture adhesive creams have strong hold that lasts all day long. Plus they offer the unique, patented Ooze-Control Tip® that helps you apply a thinner strip of denture adhesive so it's easier to apply with more control and less ooze. You can place denture grip right where you need it most.
Super Poligrip® Comfort Seal® Strips are an innovation in denture adhesives that allow denture wearers to get close to a more natural feeling. Comfort Seal® Strips provide the same level of hold as a cream adhesive but without the unpleasant ooze, mess or taste. The convenient pre-measured strips are individually and hygienically wrapped to provide just the right amount of hold.
Extra Strength Super Poligrip® Powder helps you hold your dentures tight for up to 12 full hours and helps them feel comfortable and natural in your mouth.
How do I apply Super Poligrip® cream, strips or powders?
should only be used and applied according to label directions. Poligrip®
Denture Adhesive is not intended for use in ill-fitting dentures. Ill-fitting dentures should be re-lined or replaced by a dentist. Only a small amount of denture adhesive should be needed.
Applying Super Poligrip®
denture adhesive cream:
- Clean and dry your dentures.
- Apply adhesive in short strips, not too close to denture edges.
- Rinse mouth before inserting dentures.
- Press dentures firmly into place, hold firmly, and bite down for a few seconds to secure.
to see how to properly apply denture adhesive cream.
Applying Super Poligrip®
- Clean and dry your dentures.
- With dry hands, peel open and remove strips.
- Lightly moisten one strip at a time with water.
- Place strips on denture, not too close to denture edges. Do not overlap strips. (Tear strips if needed.)
- Rinse mouth with water before inserting denture.
- Press denture in place, hold firmly and bite down.
to see how to properly apply denture adhesive strips.
Applying Extra Strength Super Poligrip®
- Clean dentures thoroughly, leaving them wet.
- Open cap to expose tip.
- Apply evenly by squeezing the bottle. Shake off excess powder.
- For Upper Dentures, position the bottle so powder is dispensed over a large surface area. Move tip from front to back of denture.
- For lower Dentures, position the bottle so powder is dispensing in thin stream. Move tip along the "U" of the denture channel.
- Press dentures in place and hold firmly for a few moments.
- Keep dispenser tip dry so that the opening does not clog.
to see how to properly apply denture adhesive powder.
How long does Super Poligrip® Hold?
Our zinc-free formulation provides an effective all-day hold for well-fitted dentures (up to 12 hours) - depending upon the individual, the fit of the denture, the amount of saliva in the mouth and the foods and beverages that are consumed. Do not apply more than once a day. Visit your dentist regularly. Ill -fitting dentures may impair your health.
Why do I sometimes experience ooze when using Super Poligrip®?
When you experience oozing of denture adhesive cream from beneath dentures, it's a sign that you're using too much. If oozing occurs, reduce the amount of denture adhesive that you are applying. Remember, Super Poligrip® holds all day, so you should not apply Super Poligrip® more than once a day. Click here
to see how to properly apply denture adhesive.
How is the new Super Poligrip® formulation different from older formulations?
products no longer contain zinc, however they still come in the same great colors and flavors denture and partial wearers have known for years. They also contain two adhesive ingredients that provide an effective all-day hold in well-fitted dentures. And the new Super Poligrip®
is easy to find; just look for the Zinc-Free Formulation message right on the box. These products are safe and effective when used as directed. Our zinc-free Super Poligrip®
- Is clinically proven to seal out more food particles that cause irritation and pain compared with no adhesive.
- Helps prevent gum irritation.
- Significantly improves comfort, confidence, and satisfaction.
- Significantly improves stability, retention, and bite force.
Zinc-free Formulation Questions and Answers
At GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) consumer safety is our primary concern. As a precautionary measure GSK voluntarily stopped the manufacture, distribution and advertising of all zinc-containing denture adhesives in February 2010.
Our adhesives that contained zinc have always been safe and effective when used as directed. The vast majority of consumers did follow the instructions on the package. However we know that some used excess product over the long term, and this is associated with potential health risks. This is the reason why we took this decision and introduced a zinc-free line of denture adhesives.
All denture adhesive creams currently manufactured by GSK no longer contain zinc and are labeled "Zinc Free Formula".
Important information and answers to questions are included below.
If you would like to read our Consumer Advisory, click here
Was there a problem with the zinc-containing products?
While most consumers followed the instructions on the package, we know that some consumers used excess product over the long term, and this is associated with potential health risks. Reports regarding zinc-containing denture adhesives suggest that excessive use over an extended period of time may result in a zinc-induced copper deficiency which has been associated with the development of blood problems such as anemia, and with disorders of the nervous system, termed myeloneuropathy.
How do I know if I had ingested too much zinc?
A small amount of adhesive will be swallowed during normal use which isn't harmful. All GSK denture adhesive products are safe when used as directed.
If you were using zinc-containing Super Poligrip® Original, Super Poligrip® Extra Care, or Super Poligrip® Ultra Fresh for several years in amounts greater than directed on the package, for example:
- Routinely using more than once per day, or
- Apply a large amount of adhesive at each application so that a tube was used up in a shorter time than directed on the label (e.g. a 40 g tube lasted less than 6 weeks), or
- You have concerns about your health,
then you should see your doctor and read the information below.
What are the possible symptoms of long term and excessive use of zinc-containing denture adhesive?
Ingestion of zinc-containing adhesive at low levels has not been associated with health concerns. However, reports regarding zinc-containing denture adhesives suggest that excessive use over an extended period of time may result in a zinc-induced copper deficiency which has been associated with the development of blood problems such as anemia, and with disorders of the nervous system, termed myeloneuropathy.
What is myeloneuropathy?
It is a disorder of the nervous system that can be serious, with symptoms that include numbness or weakness in the limbs, poor balance and difficulty walking.
I have symptoms (i.e. numbness/tingling/weakness), what should I do?
If you are experiencing these symptoms please consult a medical professional such as your doctor.
I still have some GSK denture adhesive that contains zinc. I am afraid to use the product. Do I continue to use the product?
Super Poligrip® Original, Super Poligrip® Extra Care, Super Poligrip® Ultra Fresh products are safe when used as directed by the product label. If you need to use more often than once a day or in amounts more than directed in the package instructions, then your denture may not fit as well as needed. Please see your dentist to check on the fit of your denture.
I am afraid to use the product and want a refund.
Super Poligrip® Original, Super Poligrip® Extra Care, Super Poligrip® Ultra Fresh are safe to use as directed. Consumers with questions may call 1-866-640-1017.
Are the zinc-free formulations effective?
The zinc free formulas provide an effective all-day hold when used with well-fitted dentures. These products are safe and effective when used as directed.
Our zinc free products also:
- are clinically proven to seal out up to 74% more food particles that cause irritation and pain compared with no adhesive
- help prevent gum irritation
- significantly improve comfort, confidence, and satisfaction
- significantly improve stability, retention, and bite force
Please remember to visit your dentist on a regular basis to check on the fit of your denture, and the health of your mouth.
How much adhesive should I be using?
It is important to use denture adhesive only as labeled on the pack. For the first time, use a small amount and use more if needed. Too much adhesive can cause oozing- apply less next time if this occurs. It may take a few tries to find the right amount for your denture. Apply once a day for secure hold. If you need to apply more often seek advice from your denture care professional.
Visit your dentist at least once a year to check on denture fit and oral health status.
SUPER POLIGRIP is a registered trademark of Glaxo group of companies.
- Denture care - Cleansers
How is Polident® Microclean Formula better than current or "old" Polident®?
Peracetic acid formed by the ingredients in Polident® MicroClean provides an antifungal and antibacterial action and has stronger antimicrobial action than the old Polident®.
Why should I use Polident® Microclean instead of toothpaste to clean my dentures?
Family toothpastes contain abrasives to clean mainly through mechanical action and most do not contain antimicrobial ingredients.
Polident® MicroClean Formula kills 99.9% of odor-causing bacteria and more of other microorganisms than regular toothpaste
Are there any denture materials that Polident® cannot be used with; i.e. softer acrylic materials?
Polident® is safe for use with all denture materials. It is safe for use on porcelain or acrylic teeth as well as all acrylics used for the base of the denture, regardless of its rigidity.
What are the ingredients in Polident® that provides cleaning?
anti-bacterial cleaning system has several ingredients that participate in the cleaning process.
The effervescent action (Sodium Bicarbonate and Citric Acid) provides mechanical cleaning action to loosen particles from the denture. The effervescent compounds also reduce odor by neutralizing the by-products of bacteria.
The oxidants (sodium perborate & potassium monopersulfate) remove stains and whiten the denture teeth.
The detergents (sodium polyphosphate & several others) clean by removing virtually all the particles that were broken down and loosened by the previously mentioned active ingredients.
How does Polident® remove stains?
The oxidizing agents are the primary stain removers, while they also aid in the breakdown of food proteins. The oxidizing agents act as a whitener/bleaching agent that removes the stains. The detergents emulsify oily stains and keep them dispersed and suspended away from the denture. The detergents then remove the stain particles.
Is Polident® antibacterial?
Yes, Polident® is proven to kill odor-causing bacteria.
How long do patients have to soak their denture and how often?
Patients should soak their denture everyday, and follow the directions on the box for the duration of the soak, as it is dependant upon the variant purchased.
3-minute - kills 99.9% of odor-causing bacteria in just 3 minutes and kills other microorganisms in 5 minutes. This is ideal for patients who want a quick cleaning during the day.
Overnight Soak overnight to deep clean tough stains.
Partials Formulated to clean both the acrylic surface and metal clasps in 15 minutes.
Is it safe to soak dentures overnight in Polident®?
All Polident® variants are safe for the overnight soaking of dentures. It is important to note that Polident® Overnight is ideal for overnight soaking and cleaning. Polident® 3-Minute is also safe for overnight cleaning, and will not harm the denture.
Are there any long term effects on the denture material with regular overnight use?
The only long-term effect of regular overnight use on denture material is a clean denture. It is perfectly safe to soak your denture in Polident® for the duration of the night, and there are no negative effects.
I don't recommend long term use of Polident® because it can discolor the acrylic.
is safe for long-term use. Polident®
has been through extensive testing and none of our studies have indicated that long-term use of Polident®
will discolor the acrylic material.
Acrylic, like many other materials will naturally fade over time. As the acrylic denture is exposed to ultra violet light, the color will fade. This is in no way associated with the long-term use of Polident®.
What is the maximum amount of time a denture can be left in Polident®?
Polident® should be used as directed.
Mechanical action/brushing is the best for cleaning dentures - why should I recommend them to add the cost of Polident® if the patient is already doing a good job of cleaning their denture with a brush.
There are areas of a denture that a denture wearer, especially an elderly wearer, may not be able to effectively clean by brushing. Polident®
effervescent cleaning action can reach where brushing can miss. Brushing alone does not provide the thorough anti-bacterial cleaning action of Polident®
If the patient is brushing it is important to educate them that denture pastes, such as Dentu-Crème, are the recommended pastes because family toothpaste are too abrasive.
I recommend soaking in mouthwash and water.
Polident® is an anti-bacterial cleaning system and it is the best method of cleaning dentures. Mouthwash does leave the denture wearer with a fresh taste in their mouth, however, Polident® helps remove stains and provide effervescent cleaning action. Mouthwash is indicated for use only in the oral cavity. Polident® is specifically designed to clean denture material.
Why should I recommend Polident® over Efferdent?
is the only denture cleanser that provides patients with a choice of different variants for individual need states (3-Minute, Overnight and Partials).
New Polident® MicroClean is formulated with an organic compound which activates the perborate/percarbonate oxidizers in Polident® to form peracetic acid. Peracetic acid provides antifungal and antibacterial action. Peracetic acid has stronger antimicrobial action than active oxygen products alone.
Polident® is the market leader, which means that patients are more satisfied with Polident® than any other denture cleanser. Polident® 3-Minute is the only denture cleanser formula to clean in 3 minutes.
Why are there a variety Polident® variants?
is the Denture Cleanser that provides your patients with a product offering that enables them to choose the method and timing habits that suit their cleansing needs. Polident®
Smokers and Dentu-Crème are all formulated specifically for different cleansing habits.
The variants provide your patients with a product that will suit their needs and increase the likelihood of committing to denture hygiene, which will in-turn increase client compliance.
What is the difference between the Polident® variants?
Each is specifically formulated to provide the best clean depending on the specific methods of use.
Polident® Overnight cleans for hours. The effervescing action is steady and works overnight to break particles that attach to the denture.
Polident® 3-Minute provides the fastest clean available. The increased effervescent action and greater stain-removing abilities enable this product to clean faster than other denture cleansers.
Polident® for Partials is formulated to clean both the acrylic surface and metal clasps.
What are the pH levels of effervescent denture cleansers?
Polident's® pH level varies for each product, but all formulations are formulated to have a pH that is safe to use and will not case chemical burn.
POLIDENT is a registered trademark of Glaxo group of companies.
- Dry mouth
What is the biotène® system?
system offers a comprehensive management approach for people suffering from moderate to severe dry mouth symptoms. The biotène®
products contain polymers and humectants providing lubrication and moisturization to dry mouth sufferers. The formulation also contains a combination of enzymes and protein normally found in saliva1
. This LP3 salivary protein-enzyme system is designed to supplement some of the enzymes that are depleted in a patient with dry mouth symptoms.
The biotène® system of products allows health care professionals and patients to select products to help them manage their dry mouth symptoms. The biotène® system includes products in 3 key categories:
- Soothe and Moisturize: biotène® offers a portable Spray for on-the-go comfort, a soothing Liquid and an effective Gel that offers reliefespecially at night.
- Daily Cleaning: Only biotène® has 2 oral rinses and 4 cavity-preventing fluoride toothpastes that are specially designed and formulated to refresh the mouth and help reduce bad breath. And, because sore irritated mouths do not need harsh ingredients, biotène® products are alcohol and (SLS) free.
- Saliva Stimulation: To help stimulate salivary flow, biotène® provides 2 breath-freshening gums.
How does the oral rinse work?
Biotène® oral rinse helps relieve dry mouth symptoms. The oral rinse contains polymers and humectants to provide lubrication and moisturization and together with its LP3 salivary enzyme-protein system provides gentle mouth care to soothe and freshen dry irritated mouths. The oral rinse is developed specially for the delicate oral mucosa of a dry mouth sufferer. It has a mild mint flavour and is alcohol free and therefore refreshes the mouth but reduces the potential drying and burning sensation that may occur with alcohol based oral rinses.
How does the gel work?
oralbalance Gel is clinically proven to provide long lasting dry mouth symptom relief. Oralbalance Gel lubricates the mouth and supplements some of the enzymes that are depleted in a patient with dry mouth symptoms.
The Gel's polymers and humectants provide lubrication and moisturization together with the LP3 salivary enzyme-protein system offering gentle, mouth care to soothe and lubricate a dry irritated mouth. The long-lasting relief makes it a great night-time formulation; helping dry mouth sufferers get through the night without discomfort. Oralbalance Gel is also appropriate for dry mouth patients needing longer lasting symptomatic relief.
How does the toothpaste work?
Biotène® Toothpaste is fluoride based toothpaste appropriately formulated for patients with dry mouth symptoms. Biotène® Toothpaste does not contain sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and has a mild flavor suitable for the delicate mucosa of individuals with dry mouth symptoms. Like normal family-style toothpastes, biotène® toothpaste helps prevent caries and fights bad breath.
What is the recommended protocol to treat patients who suffer from dry mouth symptoms with the biotène® product line?
Dry mouth severity can vary widely among individuals. Therefore, there is not a single recommended protocol. The biotène®
range enables patients to choose the right product at the right time to fit in with their lifestyles, preferences and dry mouth severity. On the website (www.biotène.com
) dry mouth sufferers can find suggestions for how they may use the biotène®
system of products. The biotène®
system of products has product in the following 3 key categories:
- Soothe and Moisturize:biotène® offers a portable Spray for on-the-go comfort, a soothing Liquid and an effective Gel that offers reliefespecially at night.
- Daily Cleaning:Only biotène® has 2 oral rinses and 4 cavity-preventing fluoride toothpastes that are specially designed and formulated to refresh the mouth and help reduce bad breath. And, because sore irritated mouths do not need harsh ingredients, biotène® products are alcohol and (SLS) free.
- Saliva Stimulation:To help stimulate salivary flow, biotène® provides 2 breath-freshening gums.
Is there anyone who cannot use biotène® or who needs to take care when using products from the range?
The biotène® products have been on the market for many years. They have been clinically tested in over 500 clinical trial subjects including healthy volunteers, volunteers with self reported dry mouth symptoms and patients clinically diagnosed with dry mouth. See product labelling for specific age and usage restrictions.
What is the LP3 salivary enzyme-protein system?
The LP3 enzyme-protein system contains lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme. Within saliva these enzymes and protein are believed to supplement the mouth's natural defenses. Human saliva contains a variety of naturally produced host defences whose role is to maintain a healthy oral environment.
The biotène® LP3 enzyme-protein system is designed to supplement some of enzymes that are depleted in a dry mouth. The goal is to help maintain a healthy oral environment and avoid the consequences of unmanaged dry mouth.
How long do the benefits of biotène® last?
Dry mouth is a highly variable condition. Some sufferers have just oral dryness, whereas others have no working salivary glands and no saliva flow. Patients are encouraged to develop their own dry mouth management protocol from the biotène®
system of products to meet the needs of their lifestyle, preferences and symptom severity. On the website (www.biotène.com
) sufferers can find suggestions for how to use biotène®
Does biotène® work against oral mucositis?
Biotène® products have been specifically and appropriately formulated for the delicate irritated oral mucosa of a dry mouth sufferer. As a result, the product range contains moisturizing polymers, mild flavours, is alcohol free and contains no anionic detergents (such as Sodium Lauryl Sulphate- SLS). All these factors help provide symptom relief from a dry mouth and soothe oral tissues.
Are there any interactions with cancer medicines?
There are no known interactions between biotène® and cancer medicines.
Are there any interactions with systemic medicines?
There are no known interactions between biotène® and systemic medicines.
Are biotène® products gluten free?
Yes, all biotène® ingredients are gluten free.
Is biotène® suitable for vegetarians?
The biotène® range does contain ingredients which are derived from animals. Lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase are derived from bovine milk, and lysozyme is derived from egg whites.
Can biotène® be used by patients with oral lichen planus?
As yet the product has not been clinically tested in this population. Biotène® products have been specifically and appropriately formulated for people with a dry irritated mouth. As a result, the product range contains moisturizing polymers, mild flavors, no alcohol, and no anionic detergents (such as sodium lauryl sulphate- SLS). All these factors help provide relief and comfort of irritated mucosa.
Is biotène® safe for use in individuals with milk allergies?
Biotène® is safe for use in the vast majority of consumers with milk allergy. However, highly susceptible individuals should consult a physician before using the product.
Do biotène® products contain any alcohol?
No, none of the biotène® products contain alcohol.
Do biotène® products contain Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS)?
No, none of the biotène® products contain SLS.
Can the biotène® range be used by children?
Dry mouth would not normally be expected in children. It is recommended that children 12 years old and under consult a doctor.
Where can patients purchase biotène® products?
Biotène® products are available at all major retailers.
- Tenovuo J. Clinical applications of antimicrobial host proteins lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and lactoferrin in xerostomia: efficacy and safety. Oral Dis, 2002; 8; 23-29
BIOTÈNE is a registered trademark of Glaxo group of companies.
- Family toothpaste
What kinds of Aquafresh® are available?
Toothpaste is available in the following formulations:
- Aquafresh® Cavity Protection
- Aquafresh® Extra Fresh
- Aquafresh® Tartar Control Whitening
- Aquafresh® Sensitive Maximum Strength
- Aquafresh® Ultimate White
- Aquafresh® White & Shine
- Aquafresh® Advanced 2X Enamel Strengthening Action
- Aquafresh® Advanced 2x Whitening
- Aquafresh® Iso-Active™ Fresh Impact whitening
- Aquafresh® Iso-Active™ Deep Impact whitening
- Aquafresh® Iso-Active™ Lasting Impact whitening
- Aquafresh® Extreme Clean Whitening Action
- Aquafresh® Extreme Clean Deep Action
- Aquafresh® Extreme Clean Freshening Action
- Aquafresh® Extreme Clean Polishing Action
- Aquafresh® Ultimate White
- Aquafresh® Bubble Mint Toothpaste
- Aquafresh® Training Fluoride-Free Toothpaste
Why do you use sodium saccharin in Aquafresh® toothpaste?
Use of sodium saccharin is common in all major brands of toothpaste to make the products more palatable. Without the use of such a sweetener, toothpaste would not be appealing enough taste-wise and could result in consumers avoiding brushing and so not obtaining the health benefits of brushing. The formulations of Aquafresh® meet the requirements of the FDA.
Do Aquafresh® tubes contain latex?
No, Aquafresh® tubes do not contain latex or substances associated with latex.
Does Aquafresh® Toothpaste contain animal by-products or derivatives?
Aquafresh® Cavity Protection in the squeeze tube does not contain animal by-products.
What packaging materials come into contact with the toothpaste?
The container materials that come into contact with Aquafresh® toothpaste are low density polyethylene (LDP) and ethylene-acrylic acid polymer, both plastics.
Does Aquafresh® Toothpaste contain diatoms (unicellular algae generally placed in the family Bacillariophyceae)?
No, there are no diatoms in any Aquafresh® formulations.
Why shouldn't Aquafresh® Toothpaste be swallowed?
In early 1997, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required fluoride toothpaste manufacturers to place a specific warning on toothpaste packages. The purpose of this warning* is to convey the message that swallowing large amounts of fluoride can be harmful or fatal. It is important to keep in mind that the amount of fluoride contained in one brushing of toothpaste will not cause harm even if the toothpaste is accidentally swallowed.
Is the active ingredient different in the gel portion of the toothpaste than the paste portion?
The active ingredient in all of the toothpastes is fluoride (also potassium nitrate in Sensitive Maximum Strength) and is evenly distributed throughout the toothpaste, including gel.
I read on the internet that Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS), which is used in Aquafresh® toothpaste and Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES) are unsafe. Is it true?
Per the Personal Care Products Council (PCPC) the internet-spread rumors that SLS and SLES are unsafe for cosmetic products are false and unsubstantiated. The Internet is notorious for inaccurate and false information. There is no evidence of harm from the use of either SLS or SLES as used in cosmetic products. Both ingredients were reviewed in 1983 by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found to be safe. Complete reports on both ingredients are available from CIR at the following address: 1101 17th Street NW, Suite 310, Washington, DC 20036 or http://www.cir-safety.org/staff_files/alerts.pdf
How many uses are in each Aquafresh® tube, pump or Iso-Active™ can?
Using 1 to 1.2 grams of toothpaste on the brush (numbers are approximate):
What is the pH of the Aquafresh® products?
Aquafresh® toothpaste is in the pH range of 5.5 - 9.5 throughout its shelf life.
Are any of the Aquafresh® products derived from sandstone or limestone?
Aquafresh® toothpaste is not derived from sandstone. All of the base Aquafresh® products (the ones that contain sodium monofluorophosphate) use purified calcium carbonate as an abrasive. Calcium carbonate is indeed limestone (or chalk). We've found that this natural abrasive is an excellent tooth cleaning agent which is significantly less hard than tooth enamel so it minimizes abrasion.
How much fluoride is in Aquafresh® Toothpaste?
0.15% weight/volume (w/v) of fluoride ion from sodium monofluorophosphate in Aquafresh® Cavity Protection, Baking Soda, Extra Fresh and Kids.
0.15% weight/volume (w/v) of fluoride ion from sodium fluoride in all Aquafresh® Advanced products, Sensitive Maximum Strength, all Whitening products, and Tartar Control.
Is the fluoride in Aquafresh® a waste product of aluminium?
Aquafresh® contains pure salts of fluoride (either sodium monofluorophosphate or sodium fluoride). Neither one is a waste product of aluminium. We do not use stannous fluoride, which may be sourced from bauxite.
Can adults use Aquafresh® Kids Toothpaste?
Aquafresh® Kids toothpastes are very similar to Aquafresh® Cavity Protection toothpaste and Aquafresh® Extra Fresh toothpaste. The main difference across these types of Aquafresh® is that Aquafresh® Kids toothpastes have a children-preferred sugarless bubblegum flavor and the two types of Aquafresh® Cavity Protection are mint flavored. All of the Aquafresh® Toothpaste products are effective at fighting cavities and are gentle enough for adults and children to use.
Why does Aquafresh® Sensitive Maximum Strength toothpaste warn against using longer than 4 weeks?
The FDA requires warning on the labels of all sensitive teeth toothpastes. It is meant to advise consumers that if brushing with desensitizing toothpaste does not eliminate the pain, then what they believe is a sensitive tooth may actually be something that needs to be treated by a dentist (i.e., faulty restoration, cracked tooth or infected pulp).
Why is this not intended for children under the age of 12?
The use of desensitizing toothpastes by children is contraindicated by FDA regulation. Children under 12 do not suffer from sensitive teeth that arises from the normal process of gum recession, an age-related process.
Can a person use Aquafresh® Sensitive if they do not have sensitive teeth?
Aquafresh® Sensitive contains fluoride and a great Aquafresh® taste, and can be used instead of your current toothpaste. Follow package directions.
What flavor is Aquafresh® Tartar Control toothpaste?
The cinnamon flavor is a combination of cinnamon and spearmint flavors.
Are the ingredients evenly distributed throughout the Aquafresh® toothpaste, or do the different stripes contain specific ingredients?
The active ingredients in Aquafresh® toothpaste are equally dispersed throughout both the paste and the gel. The individual colors or stripes are symbolic of Triple Protection.
How do the Aquafresh® Whitening products whiten your teeth?
Aquafresh® Whitening toothpaste products contain an ingredient that work as a gentle cleanser to whiten teeth by helping to break up and remove stains without bleach, peroxide, or harsh abrasives. Results should be visible after using one full-sized tube of one of the Aquafresh® Whitening products. Aquafresh® Extreme Clean Whitening and White and Shine have high-cleaning silica, specially designed to polish away stains without excessive abrasion.
Can Aquafresh® Whitening products be used on dentures and caps?
Yes, Aquafresh® Whitening products are safe for use on dentures and caps.
Why is Triclene not listed as an active ingredient on Aquafresh® Whitening products?
Per the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), ingredients can only be listed as "active" ingredients if they make a drug claim. For example, fluoride can be listed as an active ingredient in fluoride toothpastes because it prevents cavities. Whitening teeth is a cosmetic claim and therefore, Triclene® is listed as an "inactive" ingredient.
How long will it take to see the effects of Aquafresh® Whitening products?
You should start to notice a difference after you have used about one tube of Aquafresh® Whitening products (per person, used as directed). It is important to remember that everyone's teeth are different and that some people will see results more quickly and dramatically than others. Individuals who have higher levels of staining will generally see results more quickly.
How is Aquafresh® Extreme Clean Whitening different from other Aquafresh® Whitening products?
Aquafresh® Extreme Clean Whitening provides an additional consumer benefit. It is a proprietary formulation that not only whitens teeth, but kills germs even in places your brush can't reach and gives you fresh breath that lasts.
AQUAFRESH is a registered trademark of Glaxo group of companies.